Human Origins: Evidence of Human Evolution
Evolution involveschange over time. And i’ve here fiveskulls of 5 exceptional fossil individuals out ofabout six thousand of fossil members that areknown that help document the course of human evolution. Well you can find fromjust these five representing about 2.5 million years agoto about 1 million years in the past to close the present, thatthere were changes in the measurement of the braincase, andalso in the size and shape of the face, and that you could seethat the brain acquired greater over time and that the facegenerally acquired smaller over time except you get to ourspecies the place we’ve the biggest brain and thesmallest face that is tucked in underneath the braincase.So that’s verydifferent from what now we have 2.5 million years agowith a small braincase and a big, sloping face. So what we see then is changeover time within the physical type, on this case mind dimension and the scale of the face. However human evolutionevolved not simplest alternate within the physical form ofearly people as much as ourselves, but in addition trade in behavior. So i’ve some ofthe stone instruments that helped show us some ofthe changes that occurred within the habits obvious inthe archaeological remains, and so what we theearliest stone applied sciences identified back to alittle bit more than 2.5 million years ago. The earliest technologiesconsisted of truly a rock, like a cobblestone like this, which used to be battered, and also you also have the core, and hammerstone used to be broughtback down on this cobble, and flake scars have been made, and what flew off from the cobble itself had been thesharp stone flakes, which have been reallyuseful for slicing meat off of animal bones, andalso might be whittling a stick, and that stick might be usedto dig within the floor for roots and tubers, or maybeeven deeper into the bottom for water throughout timeswhen matters had been dry.About 1.5 million years in the past,we see that the early people had been able to makereally massive flakes, and take these flakes and tostrike them the entire method round, creating a sharp edgeall the way in which round. And this used to be a rather handytool to carry about with you for a lot ofdifferent functions. This is theoldest identified handaxe, and handaxes had been around foryet yet another million years. Things changedpretty slowly. Well what we see then,starting about a 1/2 million years ago is thatthe stone handaxes became smaller and they becamemore and more subtle to the point where they becamealmost rather portions of artwork, particularly beautifulcraftsmanship, after which technological know-how keptgetting smaller as you see these high-quality blades andthen even the innovation of arrowheads, and arrowheadswere first-class of direction for killing quick anddangerous prey. And so the historical past oftechnology has been regularly the identical ever seeing that,going from significant and clunky to rather small and sophisticated.We then see over thenext one hundred,000 years as much as the present,innovation relatively picks up, and we’ve got originof, say, bone harpoons, which have been used for fishing,and also objects the place we see symbolic markings forthe first time on the bones: on antlers, on manydifferent varieties of objects, indicating that early humanswere starting to are living in a symbolic world, the place theyused language to keep in touch with one yet another. We even haveartifacts like this. This is one of the oldestknown artist’s palettes. Humans of our speciesput pigment over this flat surface and so they used thatpigment and commonly put it of their mouthto make paint, or combined it with water, and they put arton to cave walls, these first rate paintedcaves that we all know from Europe, from Africa,from Asia and Australia, and ultimately allaround the arena, and that representsthe origin of artwork.And so what we have now thenhere is just not only exchange in physical type: mind sizeand the scale of the face, but in addition alternate in conduct,and that is evolution.8700:04:14,567 –> 00:00:00,000.