BEST! The World Class Geological Field of Carbonate Geometry and Karst #2

a type of landscape where caves are
common the land has different size locks of limestone which create fractures in
the rock these fractures are where the water seeps in' dissolves the rock and
forms caves what is karst topography topography
developed in areas under lane by carbonate rocks including limestone and
dolomite karst topography includes features like caves and sinkholes and
forms when limestone is slowly dissolved away by slightly acidic groundwater limestone is a common bedrock that
dissolves more easily than some types of rock the carbonic acid found in
groundwater dissolves the calcite found in limestone chemical weathering changes
the calcite into clay increasing the porosity of the limestone left behind
over time as more and more water flows through cracks in the limestone bedrock
the carbonic acid dissolves the limestone and carries it away in
solution after thousands of years these cracks become larger eventually forming
a network of underground tunnels these caverns or caves can be many miles long
and hundreds of feet deep when water drips from the roof of a cave calcite is
deposited slender deposits called stalactites hang like icicles from the
roof on the cave floor beneath the stalactites a rounded mass called
stalagmites form when they meet a column is formed meteoric water cave
development one 1880s 1920s ideas greatly influenced by explorations of a
model 1859 to 1938 for example a Lim's 1894 578 p nouveau
trade a BOS all-terrain 1921 835 p caves were being explored under vados
conditions dados processes especially mechanical curation believed to dominate
there were counterclaims for free dick development but they drew much less
attention for example DuPont 1894 from studies in Belgium development of cars
topography step1 acidic groundwater dissolved limestone then the water table
drops leaving empty caves step to ground above the caves is eroded away step 3
thin rock above the cave collapses creating a single a groundwater reserve were is defined on
the basis of an aquifers geological formation that constitutes a system with
differentiated hydrogeological behavior in as much as it is possible to
establish hydrogeological limits associated with structural or hydraulic
constrains a specific conceptual behavioral model defined according to a
certainty symmetric regime and hydrogeological balance with clearly
defined terms and distinct Hydra channel characteristics a ground water reservoir
constitutes a dynamic natural system as a result of the variations imposed by
its own natural behavior patterns and so the concept of hydrogeological reserve
is necessarily linked to the time variable hollander and nut Marie 2005
Rubin and others 2006 Caves ho soda straws develop into stalactites soda
straws are initially hollow allowing dissolved limestone to travel through
the tube because a dissolved solid is traveling through the tube it sometimes
gets plugged out this forces the dissolved limestone to back out and
start flowing on the outside of the straw eventually it thickens and becomes
recognizable as a stalactite groundwater mixes with carbon dioxide to form
carbonic acid limestone is a rock that is easily dissolved by carbonic acid as
the acidic groundwater moves through pores in limestone the rock dissolves
enlarging cracks until an underground opening call the cave is formed
groundwater not only dissolves limestone to make caves but it also can make
deposits on the insides of caves water dripping from the cave walls contains
calcium ions dissolved from the limestone if the water evaporates while
hanging from the ceiling the calcium carbonate is left behind and builds up
to form a stalactite where water drops fall to the floor a stalagmite forms you karst collapse landforms sinkhole aka da
line comes in a variety of shapes most often funnel shaped forms as material
above Macavity becomes too thin to support the weight sometimes filled with
columbium from edges of feature can form circular lakes often entrances to caves
are found in sinkholes related to formation of feature a compound sinks
aka uvula several sinkholes coalesce to form a larger structure these may be
quite large a kilometer occasionally you ballasts are floored with alluvium
derived from subterranean streams called a bulge because rain water drains
through sinkholes there are a few surface rivers in karst regions lost or
sinking streams form when the surface stream disappears underground and flows
out of a cave many miles away you

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